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Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia. With over 12.5 million residents living within the city limits of 2,511 square kilometres (970 sq mi) as of 2018, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the second-most populous city in Europe, the most populous city entirely within Europe, and also the largest city (by area) on the European continent.
Moscow has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city, and is also one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world. Moscow is home to the third-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, and has the highest number of billionaires of any city in Europe. Situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of Western Russia, the city is the northernmost and coldest megacity on Earth. With a history that dates over eight centuries, Moscow is governed as a federal city that serves as the political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia.